Null pointer exceptions, also known as NPEs, are pretty common errors.
- In Java: java.lang.NullPointerException
- In Ruby: undefined method '...' for nil:NilClass
- In Python: AttributeError: 'NoneType' object has no attribute '...'
- In C#: Object reference not set to an instance of an object
- In C/C++: segmentation fault
Heck, two days ago I couldn’t buy a bus ticket because I got a nice “Object reference not set to an instance of an object” in the payment page.
The good news? Crystal doesn’t allow you to have null pointer exceptions.
Let’s start with the simplest example:
Compiling the above program gives this error:
Error in foo.cr:1: undefined method 'foo' for Nil nil.foo ^~~
nil, the only instance of the Nil class, behaves just like any other class in Crystal.
And since it doesn’t have a method named “foo”, an error is issued at compile time.
Let’s try with a slightly more complex, but made up, example:
class Box getter :value def initialize(value) @value = value end end def make_box(n) case n when 1, 2, 3 Box.new(n * 2) when 4, 5, 6 Box.new(n * 3) end end n = ARGV.size box = make_box(n) puts box.value
Can you spot the bug?
Compiling the above program, Crystal says:
Error in foo.cr:20: undefined method 'value' for Nil puts box.value ^~~~~ ================================================================================ Nil trace: foo.cr:19 box = make_box n ^ foo.cr:19 box = make_box n ^~~~~~~~ foo.cr:9 def make_box(n) ^~~~~~~~ foo.cr:10 case n ^
Not only it tells you that you might have a null pointer exception (in this case, when n is not one of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6),
but it also shows you where the
nil originated. It’s in the
case expression, which has a default empty
else clause, which has a
One last example, which might well be real code:
require "socket" # Create a new TCPServer at port 8080 server = TCPServer.new(8080) # Accept a connection socket = server.accept # Read a line and output it capitalized puts socket.gets.capitalize
Can you spot the bug now? It turns out that TCPSocket#gets
nil at the end of the file or, in this case, when the connection is closed.
capitalize might be called on
And Crystal prevents you from writing such a program:
Error in foo.cr:10: undefined method 'capitalize' for Nil puts socket.gets.capitalize ^~~~~~~~~~ ================================================================================ Nil trace: std/file.cr:35 def gets ^~~~ std/file.cr:40 size > 0 ? String.from_cstr(buffer) : nil ^ std/file.cr:40 size > 0 ? String.from_cstr(buffer) : nil ^
To prevent this error, you can do the following:
require "socket" server = TCPServer.new(8080) socket = server.accept line = socket.gets if line puts line.capitalize else puts "Nothing in the socket" end
This last program compiles fine. When you use a variable in an
if’s condition, and because the only
falsy values are
false, Crystal knows that
line can’t be nil inside the “then” part of the
This is both expressive and executes faster, because it’s not needed to check for
nil values at runtime at every method call.
To conclude this post, one last thing left to say is that while porting the Crystal parser from Ruby to Crystal, Crystal refused to compile because of a possible null pointer exception. And it was correct. So in a way, Crystal found a bug in itself :-)